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An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb. An adverb usually modifies by telling how, when, where, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. An adverb is often formed by adding -ly to an adjective.

Conjunctive adverbs form a separate category because they serve as both conjunctions (they connect) and adverbs (they modify). Groups of words can also function as adverb phrases or adverb clauses.

(In the examples below, the adverb is in bold and the modified word is underlined.)

1. An adverb can modify a verb.

The girls ran quickly but happily through the puddle. (The adverbs quickly and happily modify the verb ran by telling how.)

Go to the administration office first, and then come to class. (The adverb first modifies the verb go, and the adverb then modifies the verb come. Both modify the verbs by telling when.)

They are moving her office upstairs. (The adverb upstairs modifies the verb moving by telling where.)

 2. An adverb can modify an adjective. The adverb usually clarifies the degree or intensity of the adjective.

Maria was almost finished when they brought her an exceptionally delicious dessert. (The adverb almost modifies the adjective finished and exceptionally modifies delicious by describing the degree or intensity of the adjectives.)

He was very happy about being so good at such an extremely challenging sport. (The adverb very modifies the adjective happyso modifies good, and extremely modifies challenging by describing the degree or intensity of the adjectives.)

Students are often entertained and sometimes confused, but never bored in that class. (The adverb often modifies the adjective entertainedsometimes modifies confused, and never modifies bored by describing the degree or intensity of the adjectives.)

3. An adverb can modify another adverb. The modifying adverb usually clarifies the degree or intensity of the adverb.

Eating her lunch somewhat cautiously, Carolyn tried to ignore the commotion. (The adverb somewhat modifies the adverb cautiously by telling to what degree.)

Stan can discuss the English language very thoroughly. (The adverb very modifies the adverb thoroughly by telling to what degree.)

Even in the other room, Vickilee was never completely unaware of the crying kittens. (The adverb never modifies the adverb completely by telling to what degree.)

Additional Notes on Adverbs

In addition to the rules that apply to the use of adverbs, the following points further discuss their formation and function.

  • Adverbs are often made by adding -ly to an adjective.

adjective: slow      adverb: slowly
adjective: deep      adverb: deeply
adjective: fair        adverb: fairly

Ø However, not all words that end in -ly are adverbs!

nouns: family, homilyrallylily
adjectives: friendlyworldlylovelysly

  • Some common adverbs do not originate from adjectives.


 Some adverbs modify by negating a statement. These are referred to as negative adverbs


Ø When using negative adverbs, be careful to avoid a double negative.

 (Incorrect double negative)
He can’t hardly understand the words of the speaker.

He can hardly understand the words of the speaker.

(See TIP Sheet “Avoiding Modifier Problems” regarding “limiters” for further information on negative adverbs.)

  • In order to form the comparative or superlative forms of adverbs, add the ending of -er or -est to certain adverbs of only one syllable (fastfasterfastest). However, all adverbs which end in -ly and most adverbs of more than one syllable form the comparative and superlative with the addition of more or most.

Todd drives faster than I do, but I get there sooner and more efficiently by taking a shorter route. Amy drives most slowly of all of us.

Conjunctive Adverbs

Words that function as adverbs (telling how, when, where, why, under what conditions, or to what degree) and which also function as conjunctions (joining grammatical parts) are called conjunctive adverbs. 

  • Conjunctive adverbs

accordingly     finally     likewise     similarly
also     furthermore     meanwhile     specifically
anyway     hence     moreover     still
besides     however     nevertheless     subsequently
certainly     incidentally     next     then
consequently     indeed     nonetheless     therefore
conversely     instead     otherwise     thus

Conjunctive adverbs join and create transitions between independent clauses. A conjunctive adverb may begin a sentence and is often followed by a comma. When place between independent clauses, a conjunctive adverb is preceded by a semicolon and is usually followed by a comma.

Her husband is a rice farmer; consequently, these days he is busy from sunrise until nightfall. Nevertheless, he is still home every night to read his sons a story.

Adverb Phrases and Adverb Clauses

Sometimes groups of words function together to form an adverb phrase or adverb clause.

  • Adverb prepositional phrase

The puppy is sleeping under my desk. (Under my desk is a prepositional phrase that functions as an adverb because it modifies the verb sleeping by telling where.)

  • Adverb infinitive phrase

To prevent the theft of your food, use a locked cabinet to store your camp supplies. (To prevent the theft of your food is an infinitive phrase that functions as an adverb because it modifies the verb use by telling why.)

  • Adverb dependent clause

Marco departed before the storm arrived. (Before the storm arrived is a dependent clause that modifies the verb departed by telling when.)



An adjective is a word used to describe, or modify, noun or a pronoun. Adjectives usually answer questions like which onewhat kind, or how many:

that hilarious book
the red one
several heavy books

In English adjectives usually precede nouns or pronouns. However, in sentences with linking verbs, such as the to be verbs or the “sense” verbs, adjectives can follow the verb

Dave Barry’s books are hilarious; they seem so random.

One good adjective can be invaluable in producing the image or tone you want. You may also “stack” adjectives–as long as you don’t stack them too high. In general, if you think you need more than three adjectives, you may really just need a better noun. For instance, instead of saying the unkempt, dilapidated, dirty little house, consider just saying the hovel. (It’s not true that he who uses the most adjectives wins; it’s he who uses the most suitable adjectives.)

Descriptive adjectives
Descriptive adjectives (steamystormy) call up images, tones, and feelings. Steamy weather is different from stormy weatherSteamy and stormy conjure different pictures, feelings, and associations.

Many descriptive adjectives come from verbs. The verb had broken, without the helper had, is an adjective: broken keyboard. Likewise, the -ing verb form, such as is running, used without its helper is, can be an adjective: running shoes. (For more on -ed and -ing forms, see the TIP SheetS “Verbs” and “Consistent Verb Tense.”)

Nouns can be used as adjectives, too. For instance, the noun student can be made to modify, or describe, the noun bookstore: the student bookstore. Nouns often combine to produce compound adjectives that modify a noun as a unit, usually joined by hyphens when they precede the noun. When they follow the noun, the hyphens are omitted:

He was an 18-year-old boy, but the girl was only 16 years old.

 Other compound adjectives do not use hyphens in any case. In income tax formsincome tax is a compound adjective that does not require a hyphen. 

Thean, and a, called articles, are adjectives that answer the question which one? The modifies a noun or pronoun by limiting its reference to a particular or known thing, either singular or plural. A expands the reference to a single non-specific or previously unknown thing. An is similar to a, but is used when the word following it begins with a vowel sound:

the books on the table
a book from an online store, the one we ordered last week

See the TIP sheet “Articles” for more information.

Demonstrative adjectives
Demonstrative adjectives answer the question which one(s)? They are the only adjectives that have both a singular and plural form–this and that are singular; these and those are plural. Demonstrative adjectives point to particular or previously named things. This and these indicate things nearby (in time or space), while that and those suggest distance (in time or space):

This novel is the worst I’ve ever read; these biographies are much better.
Tell me more about that author; why does she write about those events?

Possessive adjectives
Possessive adjectives answer the question whose? They include myouryour, his, herits, and their:

our joke book
its well-worn pages

Indefinite adjectives
Indefinite adjectives include somemanyanyfewseveral, and all:

some jokes
few listeners

Note that these words can also be used as pronouns: Some were in bad tastefew could carpool. For more, see the TIP Sheets “Pronouns” and “Pronoun Reference.”

Questioning adjectives
Which and what are adjectives when they modify nouns or pronouns:

Which joke did you like better, and what reason can you give for your preference?

Like indefinite adjectives, the questioning (or interrogative) adjectives can also function as pronouns; see the TIP Sheets “Pronouns” and “Pronoun Reference.”

Adjective order and punctuation
Some stacks of adjectives can be rearranged freely without changing the meaning. They are coordinate adjectives, and they are equal and separate in the way they modify a noun. For example, we can freely rearrange a dulldark, and depressing daydepressingdarkdull day. Separate two or more coordinate adjectives with commas (note that no comma goes immediately before the noun).

Other adjective groups cannot be freely rearranged. These cumulative adjectives are not separated by commas. Rich chocolate layer cake cannot be changed to layer chocolate rich cake. For more on identifying and punctuating coordinate and cumulative adjectives, see the TIP Sheet “Commas.”

If you were born to English, you may not realize that there are rules for placing adjective groups in order. For example, the determiner (aanthe) comes first, then size words, then color, then purpose:

a large, purple sleeping bag

You can’t freely rearrange these adjectives and say, for example, sleepingpurplea large bag without awkwardness, absurdity, or loss of meaning, The rule is that a stack of adjectives generally occurs in the following order: opinion (usefullovelyugly), size (big, small), age (young, old), shape (squaresquiggly), color (cobaltyellow), origin (Canadiansolar), material (granitewool), and purpose (shoppingrunning).

scary, squiggly solar flares
lovely, cobalt, Canadian running shoes

Cobalt, running, Canadian, lovely shoes doesn’t work. If English is a second language for you, consult an ESL guide for more information



If a noun was the first word you ever spoke (Mama or cookie), a verb probably followed just as soon as you learned that “Give cookie” got you better results than “Cookie.” In a sentence, the verb expresses what the subject does (She hopes for the job) or what the subject is (She is confident). All verbs are one of three types:

  • Action verbs
  • Linking verbs
  • Helping verbs

Action verbs
In a sentence, an action verb tells what the subject does. Action verbs express physical or mental actions: thinkeatcolliderealizedance. Admittedly, some of these seem more active than others. Nevertheless, realize is still as much a verb as collide:

I finally realized my mistake.
The outfielder collided with the second-baseman.
She dances every Friday night.

(In the present tense, statements with subjects of heshe, or it, we add an s to the verb: I go downstairs, we go downstairs, and ballplayers go downstairs, but he goes downstairs and Loren goes downstairs. For more, see the TIP Sheet “Subject-Verb Agreement.”)

Linking verbs
Linking verbs are the couch potatoes of verbs, that is, not very active at all. In a sentence, a linking verb tells what the subject is rather than what it does; linking verbs express a state of being. For example, all the forms of the verb to be are linking verbs:

1st person (I; we)2nd person (you)3rd person (she, he, it; they)
presentam; areareis; are
pastwas; werewerewas; were
participle[have] been; [had] been[have] been; [had] been[has] been; [had] been

These verbs connect a subject, say, Loren, with more information about that subject: Loren is an athlete, or Loren was glad.

Another set of linking verbs are those pertaining to our five senses–seeing, tasting, touching, hearing, and smelling–and how we perceive the world: the verbs appearseemlookfeelsmelltaste, and sound, for example. When used as linking verbs, they connect the subject with a word offering more information about that subject:

Loren seems anxious about the test.
The well water tastes wonderful.
My carpet still feels damp.
You sound hoarse.
The curtains smell a little smoky.

As linking verbs, these “sense” verbs have about the same meaning as is. Loren seems anxious is roughly equivalent to Loren is anxiousthe curtains smell smoky is about the same as the curtains are smoky. However, these same “sense” verbs can sometimes be action verbs instead. The real test whether one of these verbs is or is not a linking verb is whether it draws an equivalence with the subject, almost like a math equation: Loren = anxious; curtains = smoky. Consider the sentence I can’t taste my lunch because I have a coldTaste here does not draw an equivalence between I and lunch; rather, here it is an action verb, something the subject does. In the sentence Can you smell smoke? smell does not describe what the subject is, but what the subject does; it is an action verb.

Other common linking verbs include becomeremain, and grow, when they link the subject to more information (either a noun or an adjective) about that subject:

You will soon become tired of the monotony.
Pha has become a very responsible teenager.
I remain hopeful.
Daniel grew more and more confident.

Again, these verbs might be action verbs in other sentences, such as in I grew carrots.

Helping verbs…
Verbs often appear with helping verbs that fine-tune their meaning, usually expressing when something occurred. The complete verb is the main verb plus all its helping verbs.

Verb tense is the name for the characteristic verbs have of expressing time. Simple present tense verbs express present or habitual action, and simple past tense verbs express actions that were completed in the past; neither simple present nor simple past tense verbs require helping verbs. However, most other verb tenses require one or more helping verbs. Moreover, some helping verbs express more than just time-possibility, obligation, or permission, for example.

…have, has, had
Every verb has three basic forms: present or simple form, past form, and participle form. All participle forms require a helping verb that fine-tunes the time expression:

Comets have collided with earth many times.
Stan had known about the plan for some time.

The table below demonstrates these three forms with their required helping verbs:

present or simple formpast formparticiple formparticiple + helper
collidecollidedcollidedhas, have, had collided
iswasbeenhas, have, had been
choosechosechosenhas, have, had been
knowknewknownhas, have, had been

Participles used as verbs in a sentence must be used with hashave, or had. Participles used without helpers become adjectives: The early explorers sailed beyond the known world.

…to be: am, are, is, was, were, been

Verbs with -ing endings require a helper from the to be family of verbs. These progressive verb tenses express ongoing present action, continuous past action or future planned action:

They are still working on the contract.
Phanat was studying all night.
Holly had been reviewing her notes since the day before.
We are holding student elections next September.

Verbs with -ing endings must be used with one of the to be helpers; an -ing word without a helper is ineligible to act as the verb of a sentence. It can, however, be a noun (Hiking is fun) or an adjective (The hiking trail is closed).

...do, does, did
The helping verbs dodoes, and did may be used optionally to add emphasis: She certainly does like her morning mocha.

While adding emphasis is optional, these helpers must be used when forming questions: Does Andrea ski every weekend? They must also accompany the verb in sentences that combine not with an action verb: Don’t you want to take the train? Do not wait for me past 4:30.

When do and does are used, they change form to match the subject while the main verb remains in simple form: instead of She likes coffee, we would say, She sure does like her coffee. Similarly, for questions, we change the form of the helper and leave the main verb in simple form: Does Andrea ski? The negative is Andrea does not ski, even though the statement would have been Andrea skis. (In the past tense, with did, the verb never changes form.)

…will and shall
Future tense verbs require a helper, will or shall, and express intention, expectation, or action that will happen later.

We shall drive to Santa Barbara in August.
Krista will not attend.
We will be holding student elections in September.

…would, could, should, can, may, might…
The verb helpers wouldcouldshouldcanmaymightmustsupposed toought toused to, and have to are examples of modal helpers. (Will and shall are technically modals as well.) Modal helpers are little different from real verbs because they never change form. They are easy to use because they always are used with the simple form of the verb:

I may want to change my flight.
You can cash your check at the grocery store.
Paul must notify his employer soon.

Instead of expressing time, modals help verbs express a variety of other things:

ExpressesFor example…
past habitI never used to eat breakfast; I would never eat breakfast.
requestsHe would like us to clean up; could you clean up? Can you do it?
permissionYes, you can go. You may change the channel. He could leave early.
necessity, advisabilityYou must see that movie! We ought to go soon; we will have to call later.
possibilityI might pay with cash; we may write a check. That could be true.

For more information on the various possible meanings of some modals

(Grammar geek note: Sometimes, when words like would and could express a statement of possibility or desire, or when they state something contrary to fact, a special verb form, the subjunctive, is required. For example, If he had known, he would have come sooner is an expression contrary to fact. So in this example, the subjunctive form causes the helper to change to have instead of the expected has–for more information, check a grammar and usage guide for “subjunctive mood.”)




Pronouns replace nouns. Without them, language would be repetitious, lengthy, and awkward:

President John Kennedy had severe back trouble, and although President John Kennedy approached stairs gingerly and lifted with care, President John Kennedy did swim and sail, and occasionally President John Kennedy even managed to play touch football with friends, family members, or co-workers.

With pronouns taking the place of some nouns, that sentence reads more naturally:

President John Kennedy had severe back trouble, and although he approached stairs gingerly and lifted with care, he did swim and sail, and occasionally he even managed to play touch football with friends, family members, or co-workers.

The pronoun he takes the place of the proper noun President John Kennedy. This makes President John Kennedy the antecedent of the pronoun. The antecedent is the noun or pronoun that a pronoun replaces. There are six types of pronouns:

Personal Reflexive

Indefinite Relative

Possessive Demonstrative

Personal pronouns

Since nouns refer to specific persons, places, or things, personal pronouns also refer to specific persons, places, or things. Pronouns have characteristics called number, person, and case.

The number refers to whether a pronoun is singular (him) or plural (them). Thus John Kennedy becomes he or him, while the president’s friends would be they or them.

The person is a little more abstract. The first person is the person speaking-I. The sentence “I expect to graduate in January,” is in the first person. The second person is the one being spoken to–you: “You may be able to graduate sooner!” The third person is being spoken of-he, she, it, they, them: “She, on the other hand, may have to wait until June to graduate.” A pronoun must match (agree with) its antecedent in person as well as number. So graduating students must be referred to as they or them, not as us; a valedictorian must be referred to as he or shehim or her, not as we or you.

The case refers to what job a pronoun can legally perform in a sentence. Some pronouns can be subjects and others cannot. For example, we are allowed to say “I expect to graduate soon,” but we are not allowed to say “I expect to graduate soon.” Pronouns that may be subjected are in the subjective case; they are subject pronouns. Some pronouns cannot be subjects; they are, instead, used as direct objects, indirect objects, or objects of prepositions. They are in the objective case; they are object pronouns: “His uncle hired him after graduation.” “Uncle Joe gave her a job, too.” “Without them, he would have been shorthanded.”

First-person Second person Third person

Subjective Objective Subjective Objective Subjective Objective

I, we me, us you he, she, it, they him, her, it, them

Subject pronouns also are used after linking verbs, where they refer back to the subject: “The valedictorian was


Indefinite pronouns

While personal pronouns refer to specific persons, places, or things, indefinite pronouns refer to general persons, places, or things. Indefinite pronouns all are third-person pronouns and can be subjects or objects in sentences.

Many indefinite pronouns seem to refer to groups–everybody seems like a crowd, right?-and so are often mistakenly treated as plurals (“Everybody overfilled their backpack”). However, any indefinite pronoun that ends in –one, -body, -thing is singular: “Everybody overfilled his (or her) backpack.” The following indefinite pronouns are usually singular; if one of these words is the antecedent in a sentence, the pronoun that refers to it must also be singular. Thus, we must write, “Does anyone know,” rather than “Do anyone know”; “Each of them knows,” rather than “Each of them know”; and “Someone left her cell phone,” rather than, “Someone left their cell phone.”

Indefinite pronouns, singularanyone anybody anything either each

no one nobody nothing another one

someone somebody something any

everyone everybody everything

On the other hand, some indefinite pronouns are plural:

Indefinite pronouns, pluralboth few many several

Plural indefinite pronouns take plural verbs and plural pronouns: “Both were rewarded for their courage.” “Many attend in spite of their other obligations.”

A few indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending on the context:

Indefinite pronouns, singular or pluralmost any all none some neither

Thus, we may write, “All is well,” (singular) in reference to the general condition of things, or “All are attending,” (plural) in reference to individuals. (For more, look up the count and non-count nouns in an English grammar reference or online.)

(Some of the indefinite pronouns above can also be used as adjectives. In “Many left their trash on the riverbank,” many is a pronoun replacing swimmers. In contrast, in “Many students went tubing on the river,” many is an adjective modifying student. For more information

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns replace possessive nouns. Thus, Jamie’s Corvette becomes her Corvette. Possessive pronouns never take apostrophes.

Possessive pronounsmy our your his, her its their whose

mine ours yours his, hers


In the table above, the words in the upper row must accompany nouns: her Corvette, our Nissan. The pronouns in the lower row stand-alone, as replacements for the adjective + noun pair– “Hers is fast; mine is slow.”

Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns add emphasis. They always follow a noun or personal pronoun and do not appear alone in a sentence: “Jamie herself changed the tire.” “She herself changed the tire.” The meaning is that she, and no one else, changed the tire, and the emphasis is on the independence of her action. Reflexive pronouns also show that someone did something to himself or herself: “She surprised herself with how well she did on the test.”

Reflexive pronouns myself ourselves yourself

yourselves himself, herself, itself


A reflexive pronoun cannot replace the subject of a sentence, such as in “Burcu and myself are taking that class together.” Instead, use a personal pronoun: “Burcu and I are taking that class together” or “Burcu and I myself are taking that class together.”

There is no self or themselves. “They waxed the car themselves at home.” There is no hisself: “Jesse taught himself French.”

Relative pronouns

A relative pronoun begins a clause that refers to a noun in a sentence. (A clause is a word group with its own subject and verb.) Who begins a clause that refers to people: “Krista is the math tutor who helped me the most.” That may refer either to persons or things: “Laura is the math tutor that knows the most about calculus; calculus is the class that I am taking in the fall.” Which begins a clause that refers to things: “Statistics, which is the interpretation of collected numerical data, has many practical applications.”

Relative pronouns that who whoever whose

which whom whomever what

Who is a subject pronoun; it can be the subject of a sentence: “Who was at the door?” Whom is an object pronoun? It cannot be the subject of a sentence, but it can be a direct or indirect object or the object of a preposition: “Don’t ask for whom the bell tolls.” Who and whom often appear in questions where the natural word order is inverted and where the words you see first are the pronouns who or whom, followed by part of the verb, then the subject, then the rest of the verb. So it isn’t always easy to figure out if you should use who or whom. Is it “Who did you visit last summer?” or “Whom did you visit last summer?” To decide, follow these steps:

  1. Change the question to a statement: “You did visit who/whom last summer.” This restores natural word order: subject, verb, direct object.
  2. In place of who/whom, substitute the personal pronouns he and him: “You did visit he last summer”; “You did visit him last summer.”
  3. If he, a subject pronoun, is right, then the right choice for the original question is who–another subject pronoun. If him, an object pronoun, is correct, then the right choice for the original question is whom–another object pronoun.
  4. Based on step three, above, correctly frame the question: “Whom did you visit last summer?”

Similarly, whoever is a subject pronoun, and whomever is an object pronoun. Use the same test for, “Whoever/whomever would want to run on such a humid day?” Change the question to a statement, substituting he and him: “He (not him) would want to run on such a humid day.” The right word, therefore, would be whoever, the subject pronoun. On the other hand, you would say, “Hand out plenty of water to whomever you see.” You would see and hand the water out to him, not to he; this sentence requires the object pronoun.

Demonstrative pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns indicate specific persons, places, or things: “That is a great idea!” That is a pronoun referring to the abstract noun idea.

Demonstrative pronounsthis these

that those

(Like some indefinite pronouns, demonstrative pronouns can also be used as adjectives. In “That band started out playing local Chico clubs,” that modifies the noun band.)

For more on pronouns, see the TIP Sheets “The Eight Parts of Speech,” “Pronoun Reference,” and “Relative Pronouns: Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses.”




The first real word you ever used probably was a noun-a word like mamadaddycar, or cookie. Most children begin building their vocabularies with nouns. A noun names something: a person, place, or thing. Most other parts of our language either describe nouns, tell what a noun is doing, or take the place of a noun.

Nouns have these characteristics:

  • They are abstract or concrete.
  • They are proper or common.
  • Most are singular or plural, but… 
  • Some are collective.

In English, nouns are often preceded by noun markers–the articles/adjectives aanthe, or some for example; or possessive words like my or your. A noun always follows a noun marker, though adjectives or other words may come between them:

my former roommate

a sunny June day

an objective and very thorough evaluation

some existential angst

Because of their noun markers, you could safely guess that roommatedayevaluation and angst are nouns (even if you didn’t know what angst was). Although not all nouns are preceded by markers, you can use a noun marker test to identify many, including abstract nouns. Consider this example:

Enthusiasm and willingness to work hard are a remedy for the existential angst of many students. 

The remedy is marked as a noun by the noun marker aAngst is preceded by the noun marker. Students are preceded by the adjective (adjectives modify nouns) many. Test the remaining words: can you have an enthusiasm or some enthusiasm? Certainly: “I have an enthusiasm for snowboarding” or “Show some enthusiasm!” So enthusiasm is a noun. Can you have an and or some and? Uh, no. So and is not a noun. Can you have a willingness or some willingness? Sure, you can have “a willingness to learn”; willingness is also a noun.

Every noun is either abstract or concrete.

Nouns like enthusiasmwillingness, and angst are abstract nouns. Abstract nouns name things we cannot see, touch, or detect readily through our senses. Abstract nouns name ideas (existentialismdemocracy), measurements (weightpercent), emotions (loveangst), or qualities (responsibility). Concrete nouns, on the other hand, name persons, including animals (cousinsRoger Rabbit), places (beachChico), or things we can see, touch, or otherwise detect through our senses (smokebeer).

Every noun is either proper or common.

A proper noun identifies a particular person, animal, place, thing, or idea–Roger Rabbit, for example. The first letter of each word of a proper noun is capitalized. A common noun does not name a particular person or thing; rather, it refers to a whole class or type. Common nouns do not require capitalization.

Proper noun (capitalized) common noun

Sierra Nevada Crystal Wheat is his favorite beer.

The Rooks and the Rangers are our local soccer and baseball teams.

Bidwell Park is one of the largest municipal parks.

Lundberg Family Farm is a sustainable, organic farm.

Most nouns are either singular or plural…

Most nouns are made plural with the addition of s or es. Thus, instructor becomes instructors, and the class becomes classes. Some nouns have irregular plural forms: man becomes men, and woman becomes womenChild becomes children, and person becomes people.

Many people, both men, and women believe that having children will be a remedy for their existential angst.

Some nouns have the same form in both singular and plural: “A moose is crossing the river. No, wait–three moose are crossing the river!”

 …but some nouns are collective.

collective noun names a collection or group of things. Although a collective noun refers to a group of many things, it is usually singular in form. We think of a collective noun as singular because its members act in one accord:

The army is withdrawing from those Asian countries that are in negotiations. 

Here, the army is a collective noun referring to a group of many people acting with one will. We treat it as a singular noun. Countries is a plural noun. If several countries joined together to form an alliance, we could say this: 

The Asian alliance is united in its determination to repel foreign invaders. 

In some instances, a collective noun describes a group that is not acting with one will, whose members rather are taking independent, divergent actions. In this case, the collective noun is treated as a plural to reflect the plurality of the members’ actions:

The jury was unable to come to any consensus. 

If the jury had reached a unanimous decision, we would have said: 

The jury was unanimous in its verdict.

EEG(Essential English Grammer)

EEG(Eessential English Grammar) lesson -1

EEG(Essential English Grammer) is very useful those know English but they don’t have knowledge of grammar those people think how to learn grammar.

In communication, languages become the primary mediator for delivering or sharing information. One of the most widely used languages in the world is English. English is well known as an international standard language and it is very important for those who life in this globalization era. There are over 750 million people who speak English as a foreign language and in the year 2000 the British Council said that there were about a billion people learning English. English is increasingly used in many places and seems it has been dominate the world communications. “A man who does not know foreign language is ignorant of his own” (1). There are so many benefits of learning English and they can be found in many sides such as in international business community, technology field, education, and in the social life.


There are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech indicates how the word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence. An individual word can function as more than one part of speech when used in different circumstances. Understanding parts of speech is essential for determining the correct definition of a word when using the dictionary.


  • A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

man… Butte College… house… happiness

A noun is a word for a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are often used with an article (theaan), but not always. Proper nouns always start with a capital letter; common nouns do not. Nouns can be singular or plural, concrete or abstract. Nouns show possession by adding ‘s. Nouns can function in different roles within a sentence; for example, a noun can be a subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, or object of a preposition.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!


  • A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun.

She… we… they… it

A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. A pronoun is usually substituted for a specific noun, which is called its antecedent. In the sentence above, the antecedent for the pronoun she is the girl. Pronouns are further defined by type: personal pronouns refer to specific persons or things; possessive pronouns indicate ownership; reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize another noun or pronoun; relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause; and demonstrative pronouns identify, point to, or refer to nouns.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!


  • A verb expresses action or being.

jump… is… write… become

The verb in a sentence expresses action or being. There is a main verb and sometimes one or more helping verbs. (“She can sing.” Sing is the main verb; can is the helping verb.) A verb must agree with its subject in number (both are singular or both are plural). Verbs also take different forms to express tense.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!


  • An adjective modifies or describes a noun or pronoun.

pretty… old… blue… smart

An adjective is a word used to modify or describe a noun or a pronoun. It usually answers the question of which one, what kind, or how many. (Articles [a, an, the] are usually classified as adjectives.)

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!


  • An adverb modifies or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

gently… extremely… carefully… well

An adverb describes or modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, but never a noun. It usually answers the questions of when, where, how, why, under what conditions, or to what degree. Adverbs often end in -ly.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!


  • A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence.

by… with…. about… until

(by the tree, with our friends, about the book, until tomorrow)

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence. Therefore a preposition is always part of a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase almost always functions as an adjective or as an adverb. The following list includes the most common prepositions:

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!


  • A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses.

and… but… or… while… because

A conjunction joins words, phrases, or clauses, and indicates the relationship between the elements joined. Coordinating conjunctions connect grammatically equal elements: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet. Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses that are not equal: because, although, while, since, etc. There are other types of conjunctions as well.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared.


  • An interjection is a word used to express emotion.

Oh!… Wow!… Oops!

An interjection is a word used to express emotion. It is often followed by an exclamation point.

The young girl brought me a very long letter from the teacher, and then she quickly disappeared. Oh my!

EEG(Essential English Grammer)

Lesson-2 about noun is in below link

What If there were no Books?


5Books were disappeared:

                                  Firstly, bibliophiles i.e people who love books will definitely get extremely sad. Secondly, with no books, libraries would no longer exist. People will miss reading books in the quiet atmosphere of a library along with their cup of coffee. Thirdly, before the advent of modern technology. Books were used for passing down knowledge from one generation to the next. With no books, the next generation might not turn out to be bright anymore. Lastly, with no books, historical events might be forgotten. Also, science might suffer as new studies may not be shared anymore.

On the other hand side:

                         Firstly, no books means trees will not be chopped down anymore To manufacture paper. This will make them extremely happy. Secondly, no books means no more homework. Children will be one happy lot.

4Schools were disappeared:

Firstly, with no Schools kids will be Stay at Home. Parents will probably have no idea what to do with them. Secondly, with no Schools movie feeders and green parks are filled with crowd. Thirdly, with no Schools Online learning will become extremely popular. Fourthly, with no schools Parents will start teaching their kids and Teachers will have to look for new jobs. Fifthly, with no schools kids will probably have no future career plans. Lastly, with no schools there will be no grades and Interviewers will recruit based on their practical skills.

On the other hand side:

                         With no schools, outdoor games will become more popular. Kids will probably become more physically health.

3Holidays were disappeared:

                                           Firstly, with no holidays people might get depressed. Physiologists will have lot of work on their hand. Secondly with no holidays people will be working without any break their health may suffer then Hospital visit since seek leaves will take a huge job. Thirdly, families come together on holidays then with no holidays families will might go a part over period of time. Fourthly, with no holidays people might forgot how to have fun anymore. Life might become dull and bored. Fifthly, Tourism industry all around the world will suffer, Restaurant were closed and jobs will be fired. Lastly, productivity might take the best people may not be genetic enough and right state of mind to work productively.

2Aeroplane were disappeared:

                                          Firstly, Wright brothers who invented the aeroplane will not be famous anymore. Secondly, Trains and ships will be extremely popular for long distance travel. Thirdly, if no aeroplanes travel time will increase by a lot. People will rarely travel across countries tourism industry will not be look it anymore. Fourthly, worldwide defence industry will be look very different tank vehicles might be better come back. Fifthly, human wills looks to the sky watch the birds and wish that one day even they could fly with them and also with no aeroplanes, people might start watching their favourite places on tv instead of traveling for often distances to visit that.

On the other hand side:

                                 With no aeroplanes, pollution level will go down in world wide.

1Clouds were disappeared:

Firstly, without any clouds Sunset would no longer look Spectacular. Secondly, there would be no way to redistribute fresh water from one place to another because no clouds means no rains eventually all the water present on the earth would evaporate and our earth would begin to look like Mars dry and barren. Thirdly, temperatures would suddenly rise during daytime and drop at night because clouds helps regulate temperature as clouds are generally white in color they reflected a good amount of sunlight thus helping keep our day temperatures down but at the same time night they don’t allow all the heat reflected from earth to escape thus not allowing our nights to get too cold.

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What If Internet Stopped Working?


In the world, Currently almost 60% of the human population will use internet i.e. Around 4.5 billion people actively use internet. Now, if internet stopped working. Firstly, no notifications, status updates or emails. Many people will suddenly have a lot of free time on their hands. Secondly, a Research suggests that productivity might increase. Thirdly, as social communication is a very important part of the internet. Without it, some amount of isolation or anxiety might creep in. Fourthly businesses built with internet as their backbone and will have to close their shops, world economy will take a severe hit. On the other side, people might start interacting more with each other.

What if there was No Google?

                   Firstly, without Google searching might not be popular as it’s today. People might talk more as they will ask each other lot of questions also people might get brighter as they will start remembering more as compare to lying completely on Google. Secondly, if there were no Google Maps People might be using Paper-Based maps. Thirdly, if there were no Gmail then might popular Post-Boxes. Fourthly, if there was no Google definitely Apple will be more happy also Nokia will grab the opportunity release feature phones and become more popular. Lastly, if there was no Goggle docs then it will be great news for Microsoft Office. Note that in Google absence Some other company will grab the opportunity and become as popular and dominate as Google as now.

What if all Cars were Electric?

                There are be number of advantages as electric cars are consider to be much be more environmental friendly. Firstly, air pollution will greatly reduces as it is to made it that road transportation is responsible for more than 50% of Nitrogen Oxide and Carbon Monoxide. Secondly, Accidents will be decreased according to “WHO” as made study on how air pollution is responsible for accidents more than 4.2 million deaths yearly. There are also would be some relative disadvantages. Firstly, Car ownership will get more expensive compare to the fuel cars. Secondly, have you realize that Rare earth elements like Lithium and Cobalt needed for battery production that we might face different kind of environmental challenges.     

What about the trees?

                 There are about 3 Trillion trees on earth right now. So planting a trillion trees would increase that the number by 33%. The impact will definitely be positive for Earth as well as all the living organisms but this will not immediately solve the climate change problem. Firstly, freeing up so much of land for planting trees seems like being a hard task. Secondly, These trees will take number of years to grow beginning of to make any mean for contribution towards reducing the carbon dioxide (CO2) from air. Thirdly, if we don’t think about machines and factories they will produce lot of pollution then trees will die.

What If We Stopped Eating Sugar?

                         Sugar stimulates the release of good chemicals like “Dopamine”. The most obvious benefits of avoiding sugar. Firstly, Sugar would be used for weight loss and also it Improves oral health and Reduced risk of Diabetes. Secondly, Sugar also triggers the process of Glycation and it turns the compounds called “AGEs”. These AGEs are attached to the Collagen and lasting in our skin causing wrinkles. So avoiding Sugar may reduce Wrinkling. Thirdly, Studies as shown that taking excess sugar causes inflammation which becomes red, sore and swollen in our body because of infection or injury. So giving up on sugary foods may prevent “acne”. Fourthly, Avoiding Sugar can also reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s.

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Stenotype, a stenotype machine, shorthand machine, or steno writer is a specialized keyboard used by the shorthand writers, stenographers.
normally uses a standard keyboard which has lots of keys to type every alphabet, But what happens when you type incorrectly? you press BACKSPACE and retype it again. Whenever they do mistakes in typing they add an asterisk beside the mistake, to indicate it’s a mistake and correct it later on. That’s how the practice of using an asterisk while texting came up.

This is stenotype.


A typewriter, used by shorthand writers. like for example, a journalist typing soon a speech. He needs accuracy and speed while typing. He can’t have the politician repeat his words again and again. They have a specific set of letters from the above set which have a specific meaning. They type that. A trained court reporter or closed captioner must write speeds of approximately 180,200 and 225 words per minute(wpm) at very high accuracy in the categories of the literary, jury charge, and testimony, respectively. Some stenographers can reach 300 words per minute.

The stenotype keyword has very fewer keywords then the mordern alphnumeric keyboard, multiple keys are pressed at the same time called chording or stroking. This system makes real-time transcription practical for court reporting and live closed captioning.
Because the keyboard does not contain all the letters of the English alphabet.



The first shorthand machine punched a paper strip and was built in 1830 by Karl Drais, a German Inventor.

Morden Stenotype:-
Morden typer writters contains microprosesors, and many allow sensitivity adjustments for each individual key. They translate the word to another language by internally using user-specific dictonaries, and most have small display screens. They typically stores the full days’s work in non-volatile memory some type, such as a SD card.

Stenotype keyboard graphic:-

These keys normally are made of hard, high-luster acrylic material with no markings.
In the “home position”, The fingers of the left-hand rest along the gap between the two main rows of keys to the left of the asterisk. These fingers are used to generate initial consonants.
The fingers of the right hand lie in the corresponding position to the right of the asterisk and are used for final consonants. The thumb produces the vowels.

For Fashion and grooming tips chechkout here

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Mechanical mouse

mechanical mouse

mechanical mouse that contains a metal or rubber ball on its underside. When the ball is rolled in any direction, sensors inside the mouse detect this motion and move the on-screen mouse pointer in the same direction.

mechanical mouse working principle:-
Inside the mouse, there are two ball rollers that work as the X, Y coordinates when the rubber ball moves on the surface.
The rollers are connected with the two plates that contain holes on its surface and it is covered with infrared pairs from two sides which contains sensors.
whenever a wheel moves the LED light goes through the holes and the sensor detects the movement of the mouse and through the IC it converts the signal into digital form and sends it to the CPU.
There are three PCB switches inside the mouse used for the left, right, and for the scrolling.

mechanical mouse

1.scroll wheel.
2.Scroll rollers.
3.Rubber or plastic ball.
4.Power supply.

mechanical mouse and optical mouse:-

1.Optical mouse:-
In optical mouse LED light is used and a CMOS sensor is used to sense the surface image. It detects the position by comparing the last positioned image of the mouse and calculates the distance between those two images and the direction in which the mouse is moved.

2.Mechanical mouse:-
The mechanical mouse contains a rubber or a plastic ball to detect the position of the mouse. As the ball rotates the two rollers connected to the ball rotate and give the data to the computer.

Mechanical Gaming mouse:-
Nowadays it is very rare to play video games with the mechanical mouse but in previous years where no optical or laser mouse was there, people use to play video games with the mechanical mouse only. Now, these mice will not support the video games’ speed and the inputs for the games.

A mechanical mouse makes use of the motion of a ball inside it, which is connected to two wheels placed perpendicular to each other. These wheels are responsible for left/right and up/down movement detection of the ball, and hence send the corresponding motions to the cursor on the screen.

The mechanical mice became a nearly universal tool for computer interaction in the 1980s and continued to be dominant through the 1990s. This is now largely considered obsolete, replaced by the lightweight and low-cost optical mouse. They are similar in shape and function, but instead of the ball, they rely on optical sensors, which tend to be more reliable.

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